IS THERE SON PREFERENCE IN INDIA? - AN ANALYSIS BASED ON SEX RATIO AT BIRTH AND ORDER OF BIRTH

Dr Zabeena Hameed. P

Abstract


Based on NFHS data, the paper observes that females are significantly under-represented among the births in India.
NFHS reports provide strong evidence of decline in sex ratios of the population aged 0-6 and in the Sex Ratio at Birth for
births in the five years preceding the survey. Against the normal expectation that the sex of the first child is less likely to be controlled, NFHS
provides strong evidence that, the Sex Ratio at Birth for first-born children has been below normal in all its surveys and has been declining
steadily, except for NFHS-4, where it registered a marginal improvement. Also, the Sex Ratio at Birth for births at order two is substantially lower
than at order one and at any other birth order, revealing strong son preference. The Sex Ratio at Birth for births at order three is also lower than
the Sex Ratio at Birth for all births except births of order two, suggesting that substantial proportions of couples with two or three children stop
having more children only if their last birth is a boy. Modern science and technology have been widely misused to determine the sex of unborn
children and this has ended up in terminating unwanted and burdensome pregnancies. Myopia of individuals and authorities culminated in
'gendercide'. Prosperity effect, breadwinner desire, old age security and religious rights and powers, and a host of other factors ended up in the
masculinization of India's population.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Rustagi, Preet,2010, ‘The Unwanted Girl Child’ in Shiva Kumar, A k.et al. (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Population and Development, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.pp.130-137.

Bose, Ashish, 2001, Population of India-2001 Census Results and Methodology, B.R. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.

Agnihotri, S.B et al, 2003, ‘Sex Ratios and Prosperity Effect- What do NSSO Data Reveal?’ Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXVII, No.41, Oct 11, pp.4381.

UNFPA, 2011 ‘Trends in Sex Ratio at Birth and Estimates of Girls Missing at Birth In India 2001-2008’,September 2011, New Delhi.(http:/India.unfpa.org)

Anne, Warren Mary, 1987) ‘Gendercide: The implication of Sex Selection’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol.17, No.3, September , pp.683-692.

Becker, Gary, S,1960, ‘An Economic Analysis of Fertility’, in Demographic and Economic Changes in Developed Countries, National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Series, Princeton University Press, pp. 209-31.

Anderson, Siwan and Ray, Deberaj, 2012, ‘The Age Distribution of Missing Women in India’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLVII, No.47 & 48, Dec 1, pp.87.

India, Registrar General, 2013, Sample Registration System Statistical Report 2011, Report No.1 of 2013

Government of India, MOFHW, 2009, Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in India, NFHS- 3 India 2005-06, IIPS Mumbai, August.

http://rchiips.org/NFHS/factsheet

http://www.censusindia.gov.in


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.