Anil Sharma, Shalini Dash


Aim: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are global problem, and there are large differences in mortality rates between developed and
developing countries. Deficiency of micronutrients may increase the risk of ALRI. A case-control study was conducted to assess the associations
between vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc and ALRI in eastern part of Indian children.
Methods: Children aged 1 – 60 months hospitalizes with ALRI (cases, N = 51) were matched to controls on age, sex and socio-economic status (N
= 31). The mean Serum levels of Vitamin A, Vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) and Zinc in cases and controls was compared using student's paired
t-test and compared the severity of pneumonia with these levels.
Results: Mean (SD) level of serum vitamin A, vitamin D and zinc in the cases were 17.08 (±10.53) μg/dl; 13.91 (±2.99) ng/ml and 61.51 (±13.84)
μg/dl, respectively. The serum vitamin A, vitamin D and zinc levels were significantly lower in cases of ALRI as compared to controls (p<0.001). In
our study serum vitamin D level was significantly associated with severity of ALRIs (p=0.042), and mean level of serum vitamin A was
significantly low in case of severe pneumonia as compared to pneumonia (p=0.011).
Conclusion: Vitamin A, vitamin D and zinc status was associated with childhood ALRI in matched case-control study in eastern part of India.
Randomized trials may establish whether interventions to improve theses micronutrients status can reduce the burden of ALRI in children.

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