INFECTIONS DURING FIRST YEAR OF RENAL TRANSPLANTATION: ETIOLOGY, RISK FACTORS AND OUTCOME

Dr. Amit Katyal, Dr. M. M. Bahadur

Abstract


Background: Renal transplantation is the best treatment in managing end stage renal disease patients.However
infections in these patients remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality[1]. Various factors like age, co-morbid
infections like Hepatitis C infection and presence of Diabetes Mellitus, play a role in development of these infections. In
developing country like ours, the spectrum of infection is likely to be different from the western world[2]. There is
paucity of data on this aspect. There exists a conflict in literature regarding the predisposition to these infections and
their impact on graft outcome.
Aims & Objectives : This study proposes to analyse the predisposing factors, spectrum of infections in renal transplant
recipients and their impact on graft function.
Materials & Methods : Hundred renal transplant patients who received transplant between 01 Jan 2015 to Dec 2015
were prospectively followed for a period of one year for development of a major infection. All patients underwent
thorough evaluation with complete blood count, urine and blood cultures, Radiological investigations and invasive
investigations were done on case to case basis to achieve an etiological diagnosis. Special investigations were done
when clinically indicated and infections were diagnosed based on established criteria. Those patients who had
evidence of graft dysfunction were subjected to kidney biopsy. Descriptive analysis was done for all variables statistical
analysis was done using paired/unpaired T test. A p value of < o.o5 was considered significant.
Results: 68 patients (68%) had 138 episodes of infection (i.e. 2.02/patient)[3]. There were 42%episodes of bacterial
infections, 29% of viral infections, 8.7% of fungal, 7.1% tubercular and 14.4% had miscellaneous infection. There was no
significant correlation between development of infection and variables like Diabetes Mellitus, age and HCV infection.
There was significant increase in creatinine value at the end of one year, in the patients of infection(p value0.003), which
on comparison with the non infected group was not significant(p >0.05).
Conclusion: Nearly 68% of transplant recipients had an episode of major infection in the first year of
transplantation.The majority of infection were bacterial(42%); and the dominant amongst them, was UTI. Graft survival
was not inferior in these patients, at the end of one year.


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